Green Walnut Husk Ameliorating the Adverse Effects Induced by High Fat Diet in Rats

Main Article Content

Sharif O Rozha
Farhad M Hawraz
Mahmud R Harseen
Ali H Hassan
Kanabi M Rebin
Hiewa O Dyary
Muhammed S Lava
Mazn M Soz


This study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of methanolic extract of green walnut husk (GWH) in hypercholesterolemic rats. A total of thirty male Albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus domestica) were divided randomly into six equal groups. Group 1, negative control, fed on a standard rat diet whereas groups 2–6, hypercholesterolemic rats, fed a high-fat diet (1% cholesterol in a standard diet). Group 2, positive control, was left untreated, whereas the groups 3–5 treated orally with methanolic extract of GWH at 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day BW, respectively. Group 6, treatment control, received atorvastatin intraperitoneally at a dosage rate of 0.8 mg/kg/day. The treatment lasted for 84 days. Lipid profiles, biomarkers for liver and kidney functions, some hematological parameters, and liver histopathological assessment were performed. No significant variation was observed on lipid profile values after 42 days of GWH intake; while after 84 days, there was significant reduction (P<0.05) in cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and significant increase (P<0.05) in HDL. On day 42, the GWH intake revealed no ameliorating effect on ALT, AST, ALP, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN); while on day 84, the GWH at 400 and 800 mg/kg BW reduced liver injury enzymes and serum creatinine levels but not the BUN. The GWH showed no significant effect on RBC, HGH, HCV, MCH, and MCHC counts; however, the WBCs count of all experimental groups showed significant (P<0.05) increase when compared to negative control. In comparison with other experimental groups, the 800 mg/kg GWH group and the treatment control group exhibited significant decrease (P<0.05) in HCT. The histopathological findings of the liver showed that the 800 mg/kg BW dosage rate of GWH was efficient in ameliorating the adverse tissue changes noticed in the positive control and other experimental groups. It can be inferred that GWH at dosage rate 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg BW have a potential antidyslipidemic effect in dose and period dependent manner. Further investigation to identify the safety of GWH for long standing using against hyperlipidemic patients is required.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Rozha, S. O. ., Hawraz, F. M. ., Harseen, M. R. ., Hassan, A. H. ., Rebin, K. M. ., Dyary, H. O. ., Lava, M. S. ., & Soz, M. M. . (2022). Green Walnut Husk Ameliorating the Adverse Effects Induced by High Fat Diet in Rats. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 45(2), 65–73. (Original work published December 28, 2021)


Luo J, Yang H, Song BL. Mechanisms and regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2020; 21(4): 225-245.

Hosta-Rigau L, Zhang Y, Teo BM, Postma A, Städler B. Cholesterol–a biological compound as a building block in bionanotechnology. Nanoscale. 2013; 5(1): 89-109.

Patel S, Ashwanikumar N, Robinson E, Xia Y, Mihai C, Griffith JP, et al. Naturally-occurring cholesterol analogues in lipid nanoparticles induce polymorphic shape and enhance intracellular delivery of mRNA. Nat Commun. 2020; 11(1): 983.

Zhang X, Angsantikul P, Ying M, Zhuang J, Zhang Q, Wei X, et al. Remote loading of small‐molecule therapeutics into cholesterol‐enriched cell‐membrane‐derived vesicles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2017; 56(45): 14075-14079.

Hanel A, Carlberg C. Vitamin D and evolution: Pharmacologic implications. Biochem Pharmacol. 2020;173:113595.

Hassan A, Din AU, Zhu Y, Zhang K, Li T, Wang Y, et al. Updates in understanding the hypocholesterolemia effect of probiotics on atherosclerosis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019; 103(15): 5993-6006.

Iyen B, Qureshi N, Kai J, Akyea RK, Leonardi-Bee J, Roderick P, et al. Risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary care subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia: a cohort study. Atherosclerosis. 2019; 287: 8-15.

Padró T, Vilahur G, Badimon L. Hypercholesterolemia, lipid-lowering strategies and microcirculation. In: Dorobantu M., Badimon L, editors. Microcirculation. Switzerland, Cham: Springer; 2020. p. 253-269.

Bengmark S. Curcumin, an atoxic antioxidant and natural NFkappaB, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic diseases. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006; 30(1): 45-51.

Asif M. Chemistry and antioxidant activity of plants containing some phenolic compounds. Chem Int. 2015; 1(1): 35-52.

Goel S, Parihar PS, Meshram V. Plant-derived quinones as a source of antibacterial and anticancer agents. In: Singh J, Meshram V, Gupta M, editors. Bioactive natural products in drug discovery. Singapore: Springer; 2020. p. 245-279.

Jahanban-Esfahlan A, Ostadrahimi A, Tabibiazar M, Amarowicz R. A comprehensive review on the chemical constituents and functional uses of walnut (Juglans spp.) husk. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(16): 3920.

Que F, Mao L, Fang X, Wu T. Comparison of hot air‐drying and freeze‐drying on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) flours. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2008; 43(7): 1195-1201.

Hemn HO, Noordin MM, Rahman HS, Hazilawati H, Zuki A, Chartrand MS. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant efficacies of zerumbone on the formation, development, and establishment of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015; 9: 4173-4208.

Dyary HO. Subacute toxicity of brown truffle (Terfezia claveryi) on Sprague-Dawley rats. Iraqi J. Vet. Med. 2020; 44(2): 103-112.

Bancroft JD, Gamble M, Theory and practice of histological techniques. Elsevier health sciences: 2008.

Taha NA, Al-wadaan MA. Utility and importance of walnut, Juglans regia Linn: a review. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2011; 5(32): 5796-5805.

Jelodar G, Mohammadi M, Akbari A, Nazifi S. Cyclohexane extract of walnut leaves improves indices of oxidative stress, total homocysteine and lipids profiles in streptozotocin‐induced diabetic rats. Physiol Rep. 2020; 8: e14348.

Javidanpour S, Tabtabaei SRF, Siahpoosh A, Morovati H, Shahriari A. Comparison of the effects of fresh leaf and peel extracts of walnut (Juglans regia L.) on blood glucose and β-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vet Res Forum. 2012; 3(4): 251-255.

Basu D, Huggins LA, Scerbo D, Obunike J, Mullick AE, Rothenberg PL, et al. Mechanism of increased LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and decreased triglycerides with SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibition. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018; 38(9): 2207-2216.

Lee WY, Kubes P. Leukocyte adhesion in the liver: distinct adhesion paradigm from other organs. J Hepatol. 2008; 48(3): 504-512.

Singh A, Gowtham S, Chakrapani L, Ashokkumar S, Kumar SK, Prema V, et al. Aegeline vs Statin in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: A comprehensive study in rat model of liver steatosis. Funct Foods Heal Dise. 2018; 8(1): 1-16.

Leelahavanichkul A, Souza AC, Street JM, Hsu V, Tsuji T, Doi K, et al. Comparison of serum creatinine and serum cystatin C as biomarkers to detect sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and to predict mortality in CD-1 mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014; 307(8): F939-F948.

Asrani SK, Asrani NS, Freese DK, Phillips SD, Warnes CA, Heimbach J, et al. Congenital heart disease and the liver. Hepatology. 2012; 56(3): 1160-1169.

Hilscher MB, Kamath PS, Eaton JE. Cholestatic liver diseases: A primer for generalists and subspecialists. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020; 95(10): 2263-2279.

Nayak N, Sathar SA, Mughal S, Duttagupta S, Mathur M, Chopra P. The nature and significance of liver cell vacuolation following hepatocellular injury—an analysis based on observations on rats rendered tolerant to hepatotoxic damage. Virchows Arch. 1996; 428(6): 353-365.