Morphohistology and Biometric Characteristics of Cecal Tonsils of Sonali Chicken at Post-Hatching Ages

Main Article Content

Ummay Ayman
Md. A Jahid
Md. R Alam
Shonkor K Das


Knowledge of basic structures is prerequisite for acquiring an in-depth idea about the physiology and immunology of the lymphoid system. The study evaluates the age related histomorphometry of cecal tonsil of Sonali chicken at different postnatal stages in Bangladesh as literatures regarding this are very scarce. The investigation was carried out on 25 healthy Sonali chickens representing different stage of postnatal life: days 1, 14, 28, 42, and 56 (n=5). After ethically sacrifice (cervical subluxation method), cecal tonsil was collected and subjected for both gross and histological studies. Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was done for microscopic study. Morphologically, cecal tonsils were located bilaterally at the junction of small and large intestine. It had tubular structure and yellowish white in color. All gross parameters (weight, length, and width) found to be increased significantly (P<0.05) throughout the whole study period. Weight was measured 0.022±0.001 g at day 1 and noticed 0.181±0.016 g at the end of study tenure. The microscopic observations revealed that at day 28 encapsulated lymphatic nodules was present along with the diffuse lymphocytes at the lamina propria and submucosa layer, which was absent at the previous study groups. At day 1, only small infiltration of lymphocytes was identified and at day 14, lymphocytes were aggregating to form lymphatic nodules. After that, age related development was noticed in histological features. The findings would be a milestone to give an idea about the gut health and immune status of Sonali chicken and provide a basis for further immunization research.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ayman, U. ., Jahid, M. A. ., Alam, M. R. ., & Das, S. K. . (2022). Morphohistology and Biometric Characteristics of Cecal Tonsils of Sonali Chicken at Post-Hatching Ages. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 45(2), 1–6. (Original work published December 28, 2021)


Casteleyn C, Doom M, Lambrechts E, Van den Broeck W, Simoens P, Cornillie P. Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review. Avian Pathol. 2010; 39(3): 143-150.

Matsumoto R, Hashimoto Y. Distribution and developmental change of lymphoid tissues in the chicken proventriculus. J Vet Med Sci. 2000; 62(2):161-167.

Khatri M, Sharma JM. Response of embryonic chicken lymphoid cells to infectious bursal disease virus. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 2009; 127(3-4): 316-324.

Ogra PL. Mucosal immune response in the ear, nose and throat. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 2000; 19(5 Suppl): S4-8.

Ola ´h I, Nagy N, Magyar A, Palya V. Esophageal tonsil: a novel gut-associated lymphoid organ. Poult Sci. 2003; 82(5): 767-770.

Yegani M, Korver DR. Factors affecting intestinal health in poultry. Poult Sci. 2008; 87(10): 2052-2063.

Nagy N, Igyártó B, Magyar A, Gazdag E, Palya V, Oláh I. Oesophageal tonsil of the chicken. Acta Vet Hung. 2005; 53(2): 173-188.

Haghighi HR, Abdul-Careem MF, Dara RA, Chambers JR, Sharif S. Cytokine gene expression in chicken cecal tonsils following treatment with probiotics and Salmonella infection. Vet Microbiol. 2008; 126(1-3): 225-233.

Khan MZI, Akter SH, Islam MN, Karim MR, Islam MR, Kon Y. The effects of selenium and vitamin E on the lymphocytes and immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells in the lymphoid organ and mucosa-associated lymphatic tissues of broiler chickens. Anat Histol Embryol. 2008; 37(1): 52-59.

Janardhana V, Broadway MM, Bruce MP, Lowenthal JW, Geier MS, Hughes RJ, Bean AG. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens. J Nutr. 2009; 139(7): 1404-1409.

Cesta MF. Normal structure, function, and histology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Toxicol Pathol. 2006; 34(5): 599-608.

Kitagawa H, Hiratsuka Y, Imagawa T, Uehara M. The apical caecal diverticulum of the chicken identified as a lymphoid organ. J Anat. 1996; 189: 667-672.

Karim MR, Khan MZI, Haque Z. The dynamics of immunocompetent cells in the major lymphoid organs and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of the chemotherapy treated chickens. J. Bangladesh Soc. Agric. Sci. Technol. 2005; 2(1): 5-8.

Nasrin M, Khan MZI, Siddiqi MNH, Masum MA. Mobilization of immunoglobulin (Ig)- containing plasma cells in Harderian gland, cecal tonsil and trachea of broilers vaccinated with Newcastle Disease Vaccine. Tissue Cell. 2013; 45(3): 191-197.

Rahman ML, Islam MR, Asaduzzaman M, Khan MZI. Lymphoid tissues in the digestive tract of Deshi chicken (Gallus domesticus) in Bangladesh. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2003; 6(13): 1145-1150.

Ayman U, Alam MR, Das SK. Post-natal macro- and microscopic changes of the thymus of Sonali chicken in Bangladesh. J Adv Vet Anim Res. 2020a. 7(2): 324-330.

Ayman U, Alam MR, Das SK. Age-related development and histomorphological observations of bursa of Fabricius in sonali chicken. J Adv Biotechnol Exp Ther. 2020b. 3(1): 20-28.

Ayman U, Alam MR, Das, SK. The spleen of Sonali chicken: Morphohistology and biometric analysis at post hatching ages. Asian J Med Biol Res. 2021; 7(1): 69-75.

Igbokwe CO, Ezenwaka K. Age-related morphological changes in the thymus of indigenous large white pig cross during foetal and postnatal development. Anatomy. 2017; 11(1): 12-20.

Hodges RD. The Histology of the Fowl. London: Academic Press. (pp. 84, 180-187), 1974.

Akter SH, Khan MZI, Jahan MR, Karim MR, Islam MR. Histomorphological study of the lymphoid tissues of broiler chickens. Bangl. J. Vet. Med. 2006; 4(2): 87-92.

Majeed MF, Al- Asadi FS, Al Nassir AN, Rahi EH. The morphological and histological study of the caecum in broiler chicken. Bas. J. Vet. Res. 2009; 8(1):19-25.

Khalil M. Age related histomorphological changes of lymphoid organs of deshi chicken of Bangladesh [Master]. Mymensingh, Bangladesh, Department of Anatomy and Histology: Bangladesh Agricultural University; 2001.

Hussein AA, Reshag AF. Immunehistochemical and histomorphological study of postnatal development of the cecal tonsils in Turkey (Meleagris Gallopavo). Iraqi J. Vet. Med. 2019; 43(1): 85-92.

Paul SR, Das P, Ghosh RK. Comparative histological studies on the caeca of goat, pig, dog and broiler chicken. Indian J. Anim. Hlth. 2017; 56(1): 85-90.

Hoshi H, Mori T. Identification of the bursa-dependent and thymus- dependent areas in the Tonsilla caecalis of chickens. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 1973; 111(4): 309-322.