Avian Influenza (H9N2) Outbreak In Iraq

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Emad J. Khamas


An outbreak of avian influenza (AI) (H9N2) occurred in broiler, layers and
breeder chicken farms in Iraq during 2004-2007. Mortality between 30% and
70% in broilers and 5% and 10% in layers and breeders were commonly
observed on the affected farms. Mixed infections of the influenza virus with
other respiratory pathogens particularly Newcastle Disease (ND) virus and
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) virus were thought to be responsible for such high
mortality. ELISA test was used to detect ND, AI and IB antibodies. Clinical
signs included , decrease feed consumption, swelling of the face and typical
severe respiratory signs. Gross lesions included extensive hyperemia of the
respiratory system, cheesy exudates in the tracheal bifurcation extending into the
secondary bronchi, hyperemia and hemorrhagic ulcers in the proventriculus and


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How to Cite
Khamas, E. J. (2008). Avian Influenza (H9N2) Outbreak In Iraq. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 32(1), 223–230. https://doi.org/10.30539/iraqijvm.v32i1.782