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Peafowl are a species of bird for which there is limited scientific research, despite the importance of the respiratory system on bird health. This study aimed to provide a detailed anatomical examination and comparative description of the lungs in adult male and female indigenous peafowl (Pavo cristatus) to further our understanding of the respiratory system in this species. Sixteen healthy adult peafowl (8 peacocks and 8 peahens) were obtained from commercial markets in Dyalla, and Baghdad, Iraq. The birds had a mean live weight of 3.5±0.59 kg for females and 3.0±0.39 kg for males. After being anesthetized, the birds were sacrificed by cutting off major blood vessels in the neck. Subsequently, the lungs were carefully dissected and examined to identify their shape, color, position, dimensions, and overall structure. Detailed photographs of the lungs were taken, and various measurements were recorded for each lung in male and female peafowl. The lungs of the peafowl were found to have an elongated, triangular shape, extending from the first to the sixth vertebral ribs. Each lung exhibited two borders (medial and lateral) and three surfaces (vertebral, costal or dorsal, and septal). Notably, the lateral border and dorsal surface of each lung had four deep grooves resulting from the embedding of the second to fifth ribs, which led to the division of the lung into five lobes in both peacocks and peahens. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first scientific research on the anatomical features of the lungs in indigenous peafowl. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the lung structure in this bird species, which can be valuable for future studies on avian respiratory physiology and health.
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