Main Article Content
Lead has always been a health risk in developing countries. Lead severely affects liver function. Butyrate is effective in treating inflammatory disorders in animals. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether sodium butyrate mitigates lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity. In this research, 40 adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for a duration of 35 days as follows: group 1 served as a control, group 2 received sodium butyrate (SB) orally at 200 mg/kg daily, group 3 received lead acetate (LA) orally at 50 mg/kg daily, and group 4 received both SB and LA (SB+LA) orally. Blood was collected for complete blood picture (CBC) and some serum biochemical evaluations. Liver samples were collected for histopathological examination. The rats that exposed to lead acetate showed a significant (P<0.05) elevation in globulin, total bilirubin, total serum protein, and total white blood cells with a decrease in total red blood cells, haemoglobin, and packed cell volume, while weight gain shows a significant (P<0.05) decrease in this group. Histologically showed pre-vascular infiltration of the nuclear cell. Body weight of Rat's gavage with sodium butyrate showed a substantial (P<0.05) increase, as well as there, were improvements in red blood cells RBC, haemoglobin, and packed cell volume PCV with the normal histological structure of the liver and no pathological lesion in hepatocyte. The fourth group (SB+LA) showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and total white blood cells, while other tests in this group showed nearly the control group as a result of the effect of SB. In conclusion, sodium butyrate consumption effectively reduces the harmful effects of lead acetate and prevents liver damage.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Murat JC. Effect of chronic lead exposure on kidney function in male and female rats: determination of a lead exposure biomarker. Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 2001;109(5):457-463.
El-Nekeety AA, El-Kady AA, Soliman MS, Hassan NS, Abdel-Wahhab MA. Protective effect of Aquilegia vulgaris (L.) against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47(9):2209-2215.
Demirdag R, Comakli V, Ozkaya A, Sahin Z, Dag U, Yerlikaya E, et al. Examination of changes in enzyme activities of erythrocyte glucose 6‐phosphate dehydrogenase and 6‐phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in rats given Naringenin and lead acetate. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2015; 29(1):43-47.
El-Tantawy WH. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015; 6(4):327-331.
Mudipalli A. Lead hepatotoxicity & potential health effects. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126(6):518-527.
Abdel-Moneim AE, Dkhil MA, Al-Quraishy S. The redox status in rats treated with flaxseed oil and lead-induced hepatotoxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;143(1):457-567.
Ozkaya A, Sahin Z, Dag U, Ozkaraca M. Effects of naringenin on oxidative stress and histopathological changes in the liver of lead acetate administered rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2016; 30(5):243-248.
Oyagbemi A, Saba A, Omobowale T, Akinrinde A, Ogunpolu B, Daramola O. Lack of reversal from lead acetate‐induced hepatotoxicity, free radical generation and oxidative stress in Wistar rats (1139.17). The FASEB journal. 2014; 28:1139-7.
Scheen AJ. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: from risk factors to clinical outcomes. Postgrad.
Med. J. 2013;125(3):7-20.
Masarone M, Rosato V, Dallio M, Gravina AG, Aglitti A, Loguercio C, et al. Role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018; 2018:9547613.
Rolo AP, Teodoro JS, Palmeira CM. Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52(1):59-69.
Serviddio G, Bellanti F, Vendemiale G. Free radical biology for medicine: learning from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013; 65:952-968.
Lerner TR, Borel S, Greenwood DJ, Repnik U, Russell MR, Herbst S, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates within necrotic human macrophages. J Cell Biol. 2017; 216(3):583-594.
van der Vliet A, Janssen-Heininger YM, Anathy V. Oxidative stress in chronic lung disease: From mitochondrial dysfunction to dysregulated redox signaling. Mol. Asp. Med. 2018; 63:59-69.
Mansouri A, Gattolliat CH, Asselah T. Mitochondrial dysfunction and signaling in chronic liver diseases. J. Gastroenterol.
Hamer HM, Jonkers DM, Venema K, Vanhoutvin SA, Troost FJ, Brummer RJ. The role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 27(2):104-119.
Canani RB, Di Costanzo M, Leone L, Pedata M, Meli R, Calignano A. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(12):1519-1528.
Canfora EE, Jocken JW, Blaak EE. Short-chain fatty acids in control of body weight and insulin sensitivity. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol.
Zhang L, Du J, Yano N, Wang H, Zhao YT, Dubielecka PM, et al. Sodium butyrate protects against high fat diet‐induced cardiac dysfunction and metabolic disorders in type II diabetic mice. J. Cell. Biochem. 2017; 118(8):2395-23408.
Henagan TM, Stefanska B, Fang Z, Navard AM, Ye J, Lenard NR, et al. Sodium butyrate epigenetically modulates high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation, obesity and insulin resistance through nucleosome positioning.
Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172(11):2782-2798.
Li Z, Yi CX, Katiraei S, Kooijman S, Zhou E, Chung CK, et al. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit. Gut. 2018; 67(7):1269-1279
Alrafas HR, Busbee PB, Chitrala KN, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti P. Alterations in the gut microbiome and suppression of histone deacetylases by resveratrol are associated with attenuation of colonic inflammation and protection against colorectal cancer. J Clin Med. 2020;9(6):1796.
Batra N, Nehru B, Bansal MP. The effect of zinc supplementation on the effects of lead on the rat testis. Reprod Toxicol.
Seddik L, Bah TM, Aoues A, Brnderdour M, Silmani M. Dried leaf extract protects against lead-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Eur J Sci Res. 2010;42(1):139-151.
Dehghani-Tafti N, Jahanian R. Effect of supplemental organic acids on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum biochemical metabolites in broilers fed diets containing different crude protein levels. Anim. feed Sci Technol. 2016; 211:109-116.
Sikandar A, Zaneb H, Younus M, Masood S, Aslam A, Khattak F, et al. Effect of sodium butyrate on performance, immune status, microarchitecture of small intestinal mucosa and lymphoid organs in broiler chickens. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2017; 30(5):690-699.
Hassan HM, Mohamed MA, Youssef AW, Hassan ER. Effect of using organic acids to substitute antibiotic growth promoters on performance and intestinal microflora of broilers. AJAS. 2010; 23(10):1348-53.
Ibrahim NM, Eweis EA, El-Beltagi HS, Abdel-Mobdy YE. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;2(1):41-46.
Mahmoud HM, Zaki HF, El Sherbiny GA, Abd El-Latif HA. Modulatory role of chelating agents in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. B-FOPCU. 2014; 52(1):27-35. Bul Facul Pharm Cairo Univ. 52(1), pp.27-35.
Ouarda M, Berredjem R, Abdennour C, Boulakoud MS, Khelili K. Protective effect of Taraxacum officinale against oxidative demage induced by lead (Pb) in rats exposed to contaminated diet. Adv. Environ. Biol. 2014; 8(10), 519-525.
Teloh HA. Serum proteins in hepatic disease. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1978; 8(2):127-129.
Tomaro ML, Batlle AM. Bilirubin: its role in cytoprotection against oxidative stress. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34(3):216-220.
Mohammed AK. Ameliorative effect of black seed (Nigella sativa L) on the toxicity of aluminum in rabbits.
Iraqi J. Vet. Med. 2010; 34(2):110-116.
Haleagrahara N, Jackie T, Chakravarthi S, Rao M, Kulur A. Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J. Toaxicol. Sci. 2010; 35(5):663-671.
Chi Q, Liu T, Sun Z, Tan S, Li S, Li S. Involvement of mitochondrial pathway in environmental metal pollutant lead-induced apoptosis of chicken liver: perspectives from oxidative stress and energy metabolism. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017; 24(36):28121-28131.
Sivaprasad R, Nagaraj M, Varalakshmi P. Combined efficacies of lipoic acid and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid against lead-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15(1):18-23.
Kubo Y, Yasunaga M, Masuhara M, Terai S, Nakamura T, Okita K. Hepatocyte proliferation induced in rats by lead nitrate is suppressed by several tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors. Hepatology. 1996; 23(1):104-114.
Kosters A, Karpen SJ. The role of inflammation in cholestasis: clinical and basic aspects. Semin. Liver Dis. 2010; 30(2):186-194.
Plöger S, Stumpff F, Penner GB, Schulzke JD, Gäbel G, Martens H, et al. Microbial butyrate and its role for barrier function in the gastrointestinal tract. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1258(1):52-59.
Suvarna KS, Layton C, Bancroft JD, editors. Bancroft's theory and practice of histological techniques E-Book. 7th ed. China. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2018. 559 p.